A healthy gum does not bleed, either by eating or brushing your teeth, let alone spontaneously. She is not “swollen”, nor painful.
Its color is pink, its defense capacity by the secretion of immune cells is intact allowing protection against bacteria and viruses.
Bleeding, pain, swelling. These warning signs of a gum problem should prompt consultation. The bacteria are passed under the gum and initiate “damage” in the underlying tissues. The most frequent responsible: the biofilm or dental plaque. There is a risk of gingivitis, even periodontitis, if you do not treat. This is why it is necessary to consult a doctor.
Originally, periodontitis is characterized by an infection of the gum and bone that surrounds the teeth. The infection causes destruction of the periodontal tissues that support the teeth (gum, cementum and jaw bone).
As the disease progresses, a periodontal pocket is formed between the gingiva and the tooth. It quickly becomes the receptacle of a large amount of bacteria and tartar which aggravates the irritation of the gums, and prevents healing. At its most advanced stage, periodontitis causes the fall of teeth.
The treatment includes the following steps:
Learning a rigorous oral hygiene. The patient must know how to carefully remove all dental plaque daily, clean small spaces inaccessible to the toothbrush by interdental brushes.
The initial treatment consists in eliminating the direct causes (tartar, plaque) or indirect favoring (retention zones, occlusal force, etc.) to clean the soil:
Manual or ultrasonic descaling, polishing of teeth, root planing, restraining of recoverable mobile teeth, treatment of cavities, distribution of occlusal forces.
The periodontal surgical treatment is adapted to the amount of tissue destroyed. It can be limited to the gum, or gum and alveolar bone to remove bone pockets, eliminate bacteria in deep lesions, restore the gum a functional form.
This treatment usually includes 30-minute sessions spaced one to two weeks apart.
The periodontal disease can resume its evolution if cleaning conditions are not rigorously respected.